principle of autonomy
20 十二月 2020

While the will is supposed to be autonomous, for Kant, it is also not supposed to be arbitrary or particularistic in its determinations. Autonomous moral agents can be expected to obey the command of a categorical imperative even if they lack a personal desire or interest in doing so. [35] These incidences prompted calls for safeguards in medical research, such as the Nuremberg Code which stressed the importance of voluntary participation in medical research. Since the 1960s, there have been attempts to increase patient autonomy including the requirement that physician's take bioethics courses during their time in medical school. A related objection to the Regress Problem is that this hierarchical account seems to give an unjustified ontological priority to higher versions of the self (see Thalberg 1978). “Decentralizing Autonomy: Five Faces of Selfhood.” In, Narayan, Uma. The value of autonomy can be seen in its social and political context. On the other hand. A self, then, is a particular character with certain beliefs and preferences which have been endorsed in a process of self-reflection, and the ability to reshape those beliefs and preferences in light of self-evaluation. Moral autonomy refers to the ability to apply a moral law on oneself, thus, limiting the frontiers of immoral deeds. According to Tom Beauchamp and James Childress (in Principles of Biomedical Ethics), the Nuremberg trials detailed accounts of horrifyingly exploitative medical "experiments" which violated the subjects' physical integrity and personal autonomy. Rehabilitation must be sought in a way that respects their autonomy and dignity as human beings. Finally, autonomy has been criticized as being a bad ideal, for promoting a pernicious model of human individuality that overlooks the importance of social relationships and dependency. Privacy and confidentiality are two key aspects that need to be put into consideration when it comes to patient’s data and information. Marina Oshana makes a similar point, with reference to living within a racist society (Oshana 2005). The highest level bears a great resemblance to the Kantian moral ideal, in its reference to adopting universal values and standards as one’s own. [60], Documents such as the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples reconfirm international law in the aspect of human rights because those laws were already there, but it is also responsible for making sure that the laws highlighted when it comes to autonomy, cultural and integrity and land rights are made within an indigenous context by taking special attention to their historical and contemporary events[61], The United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples article 3 also through international law provides Human rights for Indigenous individuals through its third article by giving them a right to self-determination meaning they have all the liberties to choose their political status, and are capable to go and improve their economics social, and cultural statuses in society by developing it. An agent has a preference if he or she holds a certain first level desire to be good; it is similar to a second order volition for Frankfurt. Thus, by making this decision, the agent has endorsed an intention that establishes “a constraint by which other preferences and decisions are to be guided” (Frankfurt 1988, 175), and thus is self-determining and autonomous. Patterns of intense personal interest in celebrities was found to be conjunction with low levels of closeness and security. One follows rules mechanically as it is simply a rule, or as a way to avoid a form of punishment. Neither Gilligan nor Benjamin addresses the possibility of reformulating the notion of autonomy itself, but each sees it as essentially linked with individualism and separation. "[9] King argues it is not enough to know someone else's interests better than that person; their autonomy should only be infringed if that person is unable to know their own interests on a particular matter. [27] Autonomy in adolescence is closely related to their quest for identity. Kant described the protection of autonomy at the political level as encapsulated in the principle of right: that each person had the right to any action that can coexist with the freedom of every other person in accordance with universal law (Kant 1996, 387). Another distinction that can be made is between autonomy as a bare capacity to make decisions and of autonomy as an ideal. Non-interference is generally seen as key to political autonomy; Gerald Gaus specifies that “the fundamental liberal principle” is “that all interferences with action stand in need of justification” (Gaus 2005, 272). Autonomy and Trust in bioethics. [7] Other examples include Kosovo (as the Socialist Autonomous Province of Kosovo) under the former Yugoslav government of Marshal Tito[8] and Puntland Autonomous Region within Federal Republic of Somalia. Beyond that, it is a much-contested concept that comes up in a number of different arenas. First of all, it is a concept of moral autonomy proposed by German philosopher Immanuel Kant. [4] But in doing so, they must contend with any obstacles that can occur, such as social pressure against cut-backs or socioeconomic difficulties. For Aristotle, self-sufficiency, or autarkeia, is an essential ingredient of happiness, and involves a lack of dependence upon external conditions for happiness. One of the most important principles is autonomy. Criticisms of a rationalistic and individualistic ideal of autonomy and the development of the idea of relational autonomy have been taken up within the mainstream of biomedical ethics. [27] Between ages 1–3, during the second stage of Erikson's and Freud's stages of development, the psychosocial crisis that occurs is autonomy versus shame and doubt. The principle of autonomy puts it that the patients can decide for themselves on anything regarding their health (Masters, 2014). Stage 2: Instrumental-Relativist Orientation: Morals are individualistic and egocentric. The first disestablishment began with the introduction of the bill of rights. Brainwashing or drugging criminals into being law-abiding citizens would be immoral as it would not be respecting their autonomy. For instance, on Marilyn Friedman’s account, a person could autonomously choose to be a hermit, despite having been brought up in a family and in a society and having been shaped by that upbringing (Friedman 2003, 94). Terrence F. Ackerman has highlighted problems with these situations, he claims that by undertaking this course of action physician or governments run the risk of misinterpreting a conflict of values as a constraining effect of illness on a patient's autonomy.[53]. He believed that in order for there to be morality, there must be autonomy. There are many different definitions of autonomy, many of which place the individual in a social context. Beauchamp and Childress accept that a patient can autonomously choose to be guided by religious, traditional, or community norms and values. This value then determined the "structure" of their moral reasoning.[18]. Autonomy is closely related to freedom but the two can come apart. [16], The Swiss philosopher Jean Piaget (1896-1980) believed that autonomy comes from within and results from a "free decision". The seven elements of informed consent (as defined by Beauchamp and Childress) include threshold elements (competence and voluntariness), information elements (disclosure, recommendation, and understanding) and consent elements (decision and authorization). Autonomy, self-governance, and conflict resolution: Innovative approaches to institutional design in divided societies. The kind of political autonomy granted to subjects, then, depends on their ability to cultivate these various capabilities within a given society. Bioethicists often refer to the four basic principles of health care ethics when evaluating the merits and difficulties of medical procedures. [14], Friedrich Nietzsche wrote about autonomy and the moral fight. Users of the health care system have the right to be treated with respect for their autonomy, instead of being dominated by the physician. In metaphysical philosophy, the concept of autonomy is referenced in discussions about free will, fatalism, determinism, and agency. Community partners can therefore assume a hybridity of capture and autonomy––or a mutuality––that is rather nuanced.[69]. Respect for the ethical principle of autonomy and an understanding of the law may assist in mitigating any doubts that healthcare professionals have about fulfilling these duties. By choosing which rules to follow or not, we are in turn determining our own behaviour.[17]. It is thought that autonomy is fully explained as the ability to obey a categorical command independently of a personal desire or interest in doing so—or worse, that autonomy is "obeying" a categorical command independently of a natural desire or interest; and that heteronomy, its opposite, is acting instead on personal motives of the kind referenced in hypothetical imperatives. Furthermore, the results suggested that adults with a secondary group of pseudo-friends during development from parental attachment, usually focus solely on one particular celebrity, which could be due to difficulties in making this transition. Stage 1: Punishment-Obedience Orientation: The rule is obeyed only to avoid punishment. This is because as much as a physician wants to prevent a patient from suffering, he or she still has to respect autonomy. to increase patient autonomy, however, may not be promoting what is best for the patient. The framework of seeing the value of political autonomy in terms of protecting individual choices and decisions, however, has been criticized by those who argue that it rests on an inadequate model of the self. One of the standard textbooks in biomedical ethics, Principles of Biomedical Ethics by Tom L. Beauchamp and James F. Childress, defends four principles for ethical decision-making, of which “respect for autonomy” is the first, even though it is not intended to override other moral considerations. Meyers, Diana Tietjens. Contemporary Kantians such as Thomas Hill and Christine Korsgaard also advocate substantive accounts of autonomy. There is an exchange of interests but always under the point of view of satisfying personal needs. In the part which merely concerns himself, his independence is, of right, absolute. Autonomy is an individual’s capacity for self-determination or self-governance. The first is moral autonomy, in which an agent can be considered autonomous as long as he or she “acts on the basis of reasons that take every other power equally into account” and which are “justifiable on the basis of reciprocally and generally binding norms” (Forst 2005, 230). The ideal of wholeheartedness has also been criticized on the grounds that it does not reflect the agency of agents from oppressed groups or from mixed traditions. "Auto" can be defined as the negative form of independence, or to be free in a negative sense. Frankfurt and Dworkin phrase this insight in terms of a hierarchy of desires. Some doubt, however, that proceduralist accounts are adequate to capture autonomous motivation and action, or to rule out actions that or agents who we would hesitate to call autonomous. During the history of Christianity, there were two basic types of autonomy. Sanctions must be proportionate to the absence, assuming that sometimes offenses can go unpunished, so that collective punishment is unacceptable if it is not the guilty. See also: relational autonomy, which suggests that a person is defined through their relationships with others, and "supported autonomy"[40] which suggests that in specific circumstances it may be necessary to temporarily compromise the autonomy of the person in the short term in order to preserve their autonomy in the long-term. In order to give a procedural account that would avoid these objections, Friedman has proposed an integration model in which desires of different orders ought to be integrated together, rather than being constructed in a pyramid (Friedman 1986). A just soul, for Plato, is one in which this rational human part governs over the two others. In ecclesiology of Eastern Orthodox Churches, there is a clear distinction between autonomy and autocephaly, since autocephalous churches have full self-governance and independence, while every autonomous church is subject to some autocephalous church, having a certain degree of internal self-governance. [19]:211–2[20] Traditionally, autonomy is only concerned with practical matters. In metaphysical philosophy, the concept of autonomy is referenced in discussions about free will, fatalism, determinism, and agency. [27] The styles of child rearing affect the development of a child's autonomy. Aristotle identifies the rational part of the soul as most truly a person’s own in the Nicomachean Ethics (1166a17-19). In certain unique circumstances, government may have the right to temporarily override the right to bodily integrity in order to preserve the life and well-being of the person. But autonomy is neutral as to which principles or projects the agent endorses. They are neutral with respect to what an agent might conceive of as good or might be trying to achieve. Authoritative child rearing is the most successful approach, where the parents engage in autonomy granting appropriate to their age and abilities. Finally, social autonomy concerns whether an agent has the means to be an equal member of this community. There has been some debate over whether autonomy is actually a useful value for women, or whether it has been tarnished by association. As a descriptive term, it is usually applied to various quasi-autonomous entities or processes that are formally designated or labeled as autonomous, but in reality remain functionally dependent or influenced by some other entity or process. [41], There are also differing views with regard to whether modern health care systems should be shifting to greater patient autonomy or a more paternalistic approach. Ethical autonomy concerns a person’s desires in the quest for the good life, in the context of the person’s values, commitments, relationships, and communities. Procedural accounts of autonomous decision-making do not adequately recognize the way our relational commitments shape us. The reason for Kant’s exclusion of feelings, inclinations, and other particular aspects of our lives from the structure of autonomy is rooted in his metaphysical account of the human being, which radically separates the phenomenal human self from the noumenal human self. Our freedom, on the other hand, cannot be perceived or understood; rather we must posit the freedom of the will as the basis for our ability to act morally. The hypothetical command not to speed on the freeway is not valid for you if you do not care whether you are stopped by the police. One proposal to increase patient autonomy is through the use of support staff. Autonomy is a key concept that has a broad impact on different fields of philosophy. On the other hand, administrative autonomy of entire ecclesiastical provinces has throughout history included various degrees of internal self-governance. Procedural accounts determine criteria by which an agent’s actions can be said to be autonomous, that do not depend on any particular conception of what kinds of actions are autonomous or what kinds of agents are autonomous. This faith in autonomy is the central premise of the concept of informed consent and shared decision making. Korsgaard argues that we have practical identities which guide us and serve as the source of our normative commitments (Korsgaard 1996). In any case, it is a puzzle how decisive commitments or higher-order desires acquire their authority without themselves being endorsed, since deriving authority from external manipulation would seem to undermine this authority. However, autonomy does not only apply in a research context. During the 1960s, the collapse of religious and cultural middle brought upon the third disestablishment. Kant argued that morality presupposes this autonomy (German: Autonomie) in moral agents, since moral requirements are expressed in categorical imperatives. [63], The European Court of Human rights, is an international court that has been created on behalf of the European Conventions of Human rights. Autonomy: In medicine, autonomy refers to the right of the patient to retain control over his or her … Their insight was that our decisions are worth protecting if they are somehow rooted in our values and overall commitments and objectives, and that they are not worth protecting if they run counter to those values, commitments, and objectives. Another criticism of the hierarchical model is the Regress or Incompleteness Problem. Instead of taking “steps toward autonomy and independence,” in which “separation itself becomes the model and the measure of growth,” “for women, identity has as much to do with intimacy as with separation” (Gilligan 1982, 98). The concept of personal autonomy, thus, can be used as a way of protecting certain decisions from paternalistic interference. Related to this is the adherence to at least a procedural individualism: within contemporary personal autonomy accounts, an action is not judged to be autonomous because of its rootedness in universal principles, but based on features of the action and decision-making process purely internal and particular to the individual agent. In medical practice, autonomy is usually expressed as the right of competent adults to make informed decisions about their own medical care. Harding, Sandra and Merrill B. Hintikka, eds., Hill, Thomas. The former he called heteronomy; the latter autonomy. The true self includes those beliefs and preferences which cohere together; that coherence itself gives them authorization. The primary focus of most relational autonomy accounts, however, tends to be less on procedure and more on changing the model of the autonomous self from an individualistic one to one embedded in a social context. The autonomous self is one “continually remaking itself in response to relationships that are seldom static,” and which “exists fundamentally in relation to others” (Donchin 2000, 239). [27] In adolescence parents and peers act as agents of influence. Kohlberg established three stages of morality, each of which is subdivided into two levels. A common framework used in the analysis of medical ethics is the "four principles" approach postulated by Tom Beauchamp and James Childress in their textbook Principles of biomedical ethics. “Feminism and Communitarianism: Comparing Critiques of Liberalism.” In, Wolf, Susan. The contemporary literature on personal autonomy within philosophy tends to avoid these psychological ideas of individual development and self-actualization. Autonomy is one of the central concepts in medical ethics. [10] In moral philosophy, autonomy refers to subjecting oneself to objective moral law. The idea that our decisions, if made autonomously, are to be respected and cannot be shrugged off, is a valuable one. Concern is for the self. It was where Autonomy was distinguished and its reach into law was marked as well making it the foundations for legal precedent in making case law originating from the European Court of Human rights[64], The Yogyakarta Principles, a document with no binding effect in international human rights law, contend that "self-determination" used as meaning of autonomy on one's own matters including informed consent or sexual and reproductive rights, is integral for one's self-defined or gender identity and refused any medical procedures as a requirement for legal recognition of the gender identity of transgender. In making a decision, an agent “also seeks thereby to overcome or to supersede a condition of inner division and to make himself into an integrated whole” (Frankfurt 1988, 174). The emphasis on autonomy within this strain of philosophy was criticized by Emmanuel Lévinas, who sees autonomy as part of our selfish and close-minded desire to strive toward our own fulfillment and self-gratification rather than being open to the disruptive call of the other’s needs (Lévinas 1969). “Sanity and the Metaphysics of Responsibility,” in. The structure of autonomous agency therefore seems to have a historical dimension to it, since the history of how we developed or generated our volitions seems to matter (see Mele 2001, 144-173). Theorists who hold a socially constituted view of the self will have a different idea of autonomy (sometimes even denying its existence altogether) than theorists who think that there can be some sort of core “true” self, or that selves as agents can be considered in abstraction from relational and social commitments and contexts. In governmental parlance, autonomy refers to self-governance. (Benjamin 1988, 197). [56] Nurses especially can learn about patient beliefs and values in order to increase informed consent and possibly persuade the patient through logic and reason to entertain a certain treatment plan. This was the beginning of the second disestablishment[33] when churches had become popular again but held no legislative power. Kohlberg asks these adolescent and teenage boys (10-, 13- and 16-year-olds) if they think that is what the husband should have done or not. Confidentiality, on the other hand, has a similar basis but a different scenario as well. Further, there is also a connection between political liberalism and content-neutral accounts of autonomy which do not require any predetermined values for the agent to be recognized as autonomous. The evaluative state, institutional autonomy and re-engineering higher education in Western Europe: The prince and his pleasure. “Political Liberty: Integrating Five Conceptions of Autonomy,” in, Friedman, Marilyn. Rather than letting the principles by which we make decisions be determined by our political leaders, pastors, or society, Kant called upon the will to determine its guiding principles for itself, thus connecting the idea of self-government to morality; instead of being obedient to an externally imposed law or religious precept, one should be obedient to one’s own self-imposed law. It is important to note that not every patient is capable of making an autonomous decision. In the sociology of knowledge, a controversy over the boundaries of autonomy inhibited analysis of any concept beyond relative autonomy,[3] until a typology of autonomy was created and developed within science and technology studies. They highlighted the role of the passions and emotions over reason, and the importance of developing one’s own unique self. After the Second World War there was a push for international human rights that came in many waves. [21]:251–2, In the Humean tradition, intrinsic desires are the reasons the autonomous agent should respond to. Attending to social autonomy helps to demonstrate the responsibility of members of the community to consider each other’s needs, and to evaluate political and social structures in terms of whether they serve to promote the social autonomy of all of the members. For example, there are such arguments that suggest the current patient autonomy practiced is plagued by flaws such as misconceptions of treatment and cultural differences, and that health care systems should be shifting to greater paternalism on the part of the physician given their expertise. For Kant, thinking for oneself would, if undertaken properly, lead to universalizing one’s maxims; for both the Romantics and the Existentialists, as well as for Mill, there is no such expectation. “Autonomy, Individuality, and Self-Determination,” in. 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