An additional 3 million or so Afghans are temporarily housed in neighboring Pakistan and Iran, most of whom were born and raised in those two countries. Pashtuns are predominantly Muslim. Very small groups reported, but outside the Joshua Project Small Group Policy. Ethnic groups in Afghanistan. The Nuristani are an Indo-Iranian people, representing a third independent branch of the Aryan peoples (Indo-Aryan, Iranian and Nuristani), who live in isolated regions of northeastern Afghanistan as well as across the border in the district of Chitral in Pakistan. Recently, the Taliban has started to recruit more heavily from ethnic minorities, expanding … The population of the country is divided into the following ethnolinguistic groups: Pashtun, Tajik, Hazara, Uzbek, Aimaq, Turkmen, Baloch, Pashai, Nuristani, Gujjar, Arab, Brahui, Pamiri, Kyrgyz and few others. Afghanistan, landlocked multiethnic country located in the heart of south-central Asia. Pashtun make up the largest ethnic group in Afghanistan, followed by Tajiks, Hazara, Uzbek, Aimaks, Baloch, and others.  The city of Mazar-e-Sharif is 60% Tajik, the city of Kabul is approximately 45% and the city of Ghazni 50%. And Pashtuns in Afghanistan are challenged by the rise of non-Pashtun groups. Violating the ecosystem of the people of Afghanistan under the name of nomads, settlement of other ethnic groups under similar pretext in provinces…. Pashtuns for example are highly concentrated in southern Afghanistan and parts of the east, but nevertheless large minorities exist elsewhere. Hazaras belong to the Shia sect of Islam in a country that is mostly Sunni Muslim. It became prominent during the Khalji, Lodi, and Suri dynasties of Northern India. Generally the four major ethnic groups … Pashtuns are traditionally nomadic pastoralists who move from place to place in search of grazing land. They are also known as Afghans and the name ‘Afghanistan’ translates to ‘land of the Afghans’, equally meaning ‘land of the Pashtuns’. A great example of an ethnic group overrepresented in the scholarly literature is the Nuristanis (who are more accurately a group of people speaking a variety of Nuristani languages and with varying cultures who often get lumped together). M. "Afghan". The Durand Line was drafted … A variety of ancient groups with eponyms similar to Pukhtun have been hypothesized as possible ancestors of modern Pashtuns. Ethnic groups in Afghanistan. The Taliban emerged as a force for social order in 1994 in the southern Afghan province of Kandahār and quickly subdued the local warlords who controlled the south of the country. There has been a debate as to who qualifies to be Pashtun but the widely agreed view is that Pashtuns are Eastern Iranian people who speak Pashto as their first language. The Aimaq are a group of Persian-speaking nomadic tribes, and they constitute 4% of the total population in the country. Interestingly, Aimaq women are not as restricted as other women in rural Afghanistan. , World Factbook / Library of Congress Country Studies (pre-2004 estimates), "Afghanistan: Where Things Stand" (2004–2009). This makes the total Afghan population at around 33,332,025, and its current growth rate is 2.34%. Of the major ethicities, the geographic distribution can be varied. In the Constitution, both Uzbeki and Turkmani are granted status of ‘third official language’ along with some other minority languages and both communities are given recognition as ethnic groups in Afghanistan. Pashtuns are the largest ethnic group in Afghanistan, comprising nearly half of the country’s estimated 30 million people, while Hazaras make up some 10 percent of the population and have been persecuted historically. The population in the 1990s was estimated at 125,000 by some; the Nuristani prefer a figure of 300,000. By the 16th century the Uzbeks had settled throughout Central Asia and reached Afghanistan following the conquests of Muhammad Shaybani. Richard S. Newell "Post-Soviet Afghanistan: The Position of the Minorities". The Afghan National Anthem and the Afghan Constitution each mention fourteen of them, though the lists are not exactly the same. These ethnic groups of Afghanistan have their own way of living, defined by unwritten code. Afghanistan is a country in the greater Middle East. Afghan Tajik live mainly in the Panjsher Valley north of Kabul and in the northern and northeastern provinces of Parwan, Takhar, Badakhshan, and … Most likely the Uzbeks migrated with a wave of Turkic invaders and intermingled with local Iranian tribes over time to become the ethnic group they are today. In Afghanistan, there are several ethnic and linguistic groups and also there are several Islamic sects who live in this country and they are organized in a hierarchical structure in the society. These communities are endogamous and some have secret languages. The ethnicities are represented on the table on the right. The percentages given are estimates only, as accurate and current statistical data on ethnicity are not available.  Additionally, ethnic groups are not racially homogenous. Afghanistan is a multiethnic and mostly-tribal society.  Some places are very diverse: the city of Kabul for example has been considered a "melting pot" where large populations of the major ethnic groups reside, albeit traditionally with a distinct "Kabuli" identity. Tea is an integral beverage in their homes. This process is expected to reveal the exact figures about the size and composition of the country's ethnic groups.. Afghanistan Table of Contents. Tajiks are the second largest ethnic group in Afghanistan and most of the country's elites belong to this group. Its capital and largest city is Kabul. Pashtun is an ethnic group predominant in Afghanistan and Pakistan characterized as warriors. Since the 13th century, some Pashtun tribes conquered areas outside their traditional Pashtun homeland by pushing deeper into South Asia, often forming kingdoms such as the Delhi Sultanate. Ethnic groups The Hazaras (Persian: هزاره, Hazāra; Hazaragi: آزره) are a Persian-speaking ethnic group native to, and primarily residing in, the mountainous region of Hazarajat, in central Afghanistan. They speak a variety of Nuristani languages. , There are conflicting theories about the origin of the Pashtun people, both among historians and the Pashtun themselves. The Pashtuns are the largest ethnic group of Afghanistan constituting between 40% to 50% of the total population of the country. Afghanistan has around 29.8 million people as of the year 2011. , The modern Afghan national identity developed in the mid 18th century under the rule of Ahmad Shah Durrani, who united all the tribes and formed the last Afghan empire. Linguistically the Hazara speak a dialect of Dari-Persian, known as Hazaragi, and sometimes their variant is interspersed with some Turkic and Mongolic words. Others live in rural areas, particularly in Badakhshan, and engage in agriculture. In the 1990s their number figure was put at 100,000 but they are around 200,000 today.  Mainly pastoral and desert dwellers, the Baloch people of Afghanistan are predominantly Sunni Muslims. , Tajiks are the major ethnic group in neighboring Tajikistan, a country that was created north of Afghanistan in 1991. The Hazara is the third largest ethnic group in Afghanistan.  They reside mainly in the Hazarajat region in central Afghanistan. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help) ^ a b Kieffer, Ch.  They are a native Persian-speaking people. Traditionally, a Pashtun must be a Muslim and adhere to Pashtunwali code thus only those with Pashtun fathers qualify also to be a Pashtun. Men wear loose-fitting shirts that are of knee length and trousers tied to the waist with string. Hazaras and other ethnic groups are now at least free to dream of a career of their choice. Most Tajiks in Afghanistan are practicing Sunni Muslims, like the Pashtun. A famous dish in Pashtun homes is Pulao which is a spiced rice meal. Ethnic boundaries no longer retain their prewar legitimacy. Afghanistan is a multiethnic society consisting of a wide variety of ethno linguistic groups. These beautiful patterns are also found on their carpets, wall hangings and head pieces. Afghanistan. The name became the national identity of Afghanistan in modern times. The governors of Nimruz province in Afghanistan belong to the Baloch ethnic group. Abdul Karim Brahui Governor of Nimruz Province, is an ethnic Baloch. Tajiks are believed to have Iranian origins, and are also referred to as Farsi. Hazaras occupy the rugged central highlands regions in Afghanistan. The fighting is tinged by ethnic tensions as many Taliban leaders and cadres are ethnic Pashtuns. These ehtnic groups have obvious dissimilarity, despite collectively residing in the region for hundreds of years. They are the second largest ethnic group in Afghanistan, making up an estimated 27% of the nation’s population. Afghanistan’s beautiful architecture is seen in their mosques and homes. The border was established in 1893 via an agreement between Abdur Rahman Khan, the emir (or ruler) of Afghanistan, and Sir Mortimer Durand, foreign secretary of the British Raj. Aimaqs live in Western Afghanistan. After the rise of the Hotaki dynasty in 1709 and the Durrani Empire in 1747, Pashtuns expanded by forming communities north of the Hindu Kush and elsewhere in Afghanistan.  A small unconquered portion of Kafiristan inhabited by the Kalash people who still practice their pre-Islamic religion still exists across the border in highlands of Chitral, northwestern Pakistan.  Tajiks are highly concentrated in the north-east, but also form large communities elsewhere such as in western Afghanistan. Some notable Tajiks from Afghanistan include: Habibullah Kalakani, Burhanuddin Rabbani, Ahmad Shah Massoud, Ahmad Zia Massoud, Mohammed Fahim, Yunus Qanuni, Ismail Khan, Bismillah Khan Mohammadi, Atta Muhammad Nur, Amrullah Saleh, Wasef Bakhtari, Abdul Latif Pedram, Massouda Jalal, Baz Mohammad Ahmadi, Mohammed Daud Daud, Abdul Basir Salangi, and Fawzia Koofi. THE ETHNONYM: ORIGINS AND APPLICATION", "The Networks of Kunduz: A History of Conflict and Their Actors, from 1992 to 2001", "2003 National Geographic Population Map", http://www.understandingwar.org/tajikistan-and-afghanistan, https://repository.upenn.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1012&context=senior_seminar, https://info.publicintelligence.net/MCIA-AfghanCultures/Uzbeks.pdf, https://abcnews.go.com/International/story?id=80419&page=1, "Afghan Population 29.2 Million - Pajhwok Afghan News", "Senators stress caution in ID cards issuance", "Ethnic groups: Pashtun 42%, Tajik 27%, Hazara 9%, Uzbek 9%, Aimak 4%, Turkmen 3%, Baloch 2%, other 4%", "Afghanistan in 2018 – A survey of the Afghan people", "Afghanistan in 2012 – A survey of the Afghan people", "Afghanistan in 2010 – A survey of the Afghan people", "Afghanistan in 2009: A Survey of the Afghan People", "Afghanistan in 2007 – A survey of the Afghan people", "Afghanistan in 2006 – A survey of the Afghan people", "Afghanistan in 2004 – A survey of the Afghan people", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ethnic_groups_in_Afghanistan&oldid=993741529, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2014, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from December 2014, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 12 December 2020, at 06:25. Tajiks form the second largest ethnic group in Afghanistan. is between the Hindu Kush mountains in Afghanistan and the Indus River in neighboring Pakistan, where they are the second largest ethnic group. Afghanistan is a multiethnic and mostly tribal society. This ethnic group forms 15.4% of the Pakistani population. While national culture of Afghanistan is not uniform, at the same time, the various ethnic groups have no clear boundaries between each other and there is much overlap. From the founding of the Durrani regime in the late 1800s, to the 1978 Ghilzai-led Democratic Republic of Afghanistan, it has dominated Afghan politics. Tajik: Деҳқон, romanized: Dehqon, literally "farmer or settled villager", in a wider sense "settled" in contrast to "nomadic"). Like a number of other Afghan ethnic groups, the Pushtun extend beyond Afghanistan into Pakistan where they constitute a major ethnic group of about 14 million. On this map, both the Baloch and Pashtun ethnolinguistic groups straddle the 2640-kilometer (1640-mile) border between Afghanistan and Pakistan, known as the Durand Line. According to other sources, some Pashtuns may be the Lost tribes of Israel who converted to Islam during the Arab Empire. , The population of Afghanistan was estimated in 2017 at 29.2 million. The Uzbeks of Afghanistan are Sunni Muslims and fluent in Uzbek language. Better known historically as the Kafirs of what was once known as Kafiristan (land of pagans), they converted to Islam during the rule of Amir Abdur Rahman and their country was renamed "Nuristan", meaning "Land of Light" (as in the light of Islam). 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